时任美国总统John.F.Kennedy (约翰.肯尼迪)1963年在赖斯大学美国休斯敦航天中心的讲话

时任美国总统John.F.Kennedy (约翰.肯尼迪)1963年在赖斯大学美国休斯敦航天中心的讲话

(付明泉 译 于2009年)

President Pitzer, Mr. Vice President, Governor, Congressman Thomas, Senator Wiley, and Congressman Miller, Mr. Webb. Mr. Bell, scientists, distinguished guests, and ladies and gentlemen

皮特泽校长,副校长先生,州长先生,托马斯参议员,威利参议员,米勒众议员,韦伯先生, 贝尔先生,科学家们,各位嘉宾,女士们,先生们:

I appreciate your president having made me an honorary visiting professor, and I will assure you that my first lecture will be very brief.

很感谢你们的校长授予我名誉访问教授,我向你们承诺,我的这第一节课会很简短。

I am delighted to be here and I’m particularly delighted to be here on this occasion.
我很高兴来到这里,而且我特别高兴能在这个时候来到这里。

We meet at a college noted for knowledge, in a city noted for progress, in a State noted for strength, and we stand in need of all three, for we meet in an hour of change and challenge, in a decade of hope and fear, in an age of both knowledge and ignorance. The greater our knowledge increases, the greater our ignorance unfolds.

我们相聚在一所以知识而闻名的大学中,以进步而闻名的城市,在实力而闻名的美国之州。我们需要所有这三点才能屹立,因为我们处于一个变化与挑战并存的时代,在一个充满希望和恐惧的十年中, 在一个知识与愚昧同在的年代。 我们获得的知识越多,我们显露出的无知也越多。

Despite the striking fact that most of the scientists that the world has ever known are alive and working today, despite the fact that this Nation’s own scientific manpower is doubling every 12 years in a rate of growth more than three times that of our population as a whole, despite that, the vast stretches of the unknown and the unanswered and the unfinished still far outstrip our collective comprehension.

尽管显著的事实是: 世界上知名的科学家大多是生活于今天并工作于今天的人,尽管这个国家自身的科研力量,相比同时代,就整体而言三倍以上速度增长的人口, 正以每12年两倍的速度增长 ,但是未知的范围之广,未知的答案之多和未完成工作量之大还是远远超出了我们所有人想象。

No man can fully grasp how far and how fast we have come, but condense, if you will, the 50,000 years of man’s recorded history in a time span of but a half-century. Stated in these terms, we know very little about the first 40 years, except at the end of them advanced man had learned to use the skins of animals to cover them. Then about 10 years ago, under this standard, man emerged from his caves to construct other kinds of shelter. Only 5 years ago man learned to write and use a cart with wheels. Christianity began less than 2 years ago. The printing press came this year, and then less than 2 months ago, during this whole 50-year span of human history, the steam engine provided a new source of power.

没有人能够完全了解我们已经走了多远和一直到此刻走的有多快,但专注的想一想,如果你愿意做这样的比喻, 我们可以用半世纪的时间跨度来对照有记载的人类的5万年记载的历史。 那么,在这样的对照下,在起初40年,我们知道的是非常之少,仅仅是在这个40年结束的时候,先进的人们才学会了用动物的皮来覆盖住自己的身体。 然后,仅仅大约10年前,人类从洞穴中走出来构造他们自己的家园。 仅仅在5年前,人类刚刚学会了写字和应用有轮子的车。 基督教诞生于不到2年以前。 印刷出版今年才出现,而仅仅不到2个月前,而在整个这“50年”的人类历史上,蒸汽机提供了新的动力来源。

Newton explored the meaning of gravity. Last month electric lights and telephones and automobiles and airplanes became available. Only last week did we develop penicillin and television and nuclear power, and now if America’s new spacecraft succeeds in reaching Venus, we will have literally reached the stars before midnight tonight.

牛顿发现了引力的含义。上个月,电灯、电话、汽车和飞机才被发明和利用。 而仅仅在上周,我们才发明了青霉素,电视和核能,而现在,如果美国的新的飞船能够成功抵达金星,我们将会在今晚午夜前可以真正达到了其他星球。

This is a breathtaking pace, and such a pace cannot help but create new ills as it dispels old, new ignorance, new problems, new dangers. Surely the opening vistas of space promise high costs and hardships, as well as high reward.

这是一个惊人的速度,这样的速度不可避免会带来新的弊病,因为它驱除旧的和新的无知、新的问题和新的危险。 不可否认,太空展现的远景成本高而且很艰难,但同时具有高回报。

So it is not surprising that some would have us stay where we are a little longer to rest, to wait. But this city of Houston, this State of Texas, this country of the United States was not built by those who waited and rested and wished to look behind them. This country was conquered by those who moved forward–and so will space.

也因此,这并不奇怪,有些人希望我们留在一点时间来休息,来等待。 但是休斯敦、德克萨斯州,这块美国的土地不是那些要等待和休息并跟在其他人身后袖手旁观的人所建立的。 这里的土地是被那些积极进取的人征服的, 同样,这些人也会征服太空。

William Bradford, speaking in 1630 of the founding of the Plymouth Bay Colony, said that all great and honorable actions are accompanied with great difficulties, and both must be enterprised and overcome with answerable courage.

布雷德福,在海湾殖民地的普利茅斯1630年成立时说,所有伟大而光荣的行动都是与异常的困难相伴而完成的,而完成这两者都需要非凡的勇气。

If this capsule history of our progress teaches us anything, it is that man, in his quest for knowledge and progress, is determined and cannot be deterred. The exploration of space will go ahead, whether we join in it or not, and it is one of the great adventures of all time, and no nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space.

如果说刚才这段类比的压缩的历史比喻教会了我们什么东西,那就是:人对自己的知识和进步的追求,是确定的和不能被阻止的。 不论我们是否参与其中,我们对空间的探索将持续的进展。 而对太空的探险是任何时代最伟大的冒险之一,没有一个国家,尤其那期望一直领跑于其他国家的国家,会希望自己在这场太空的比赛中落后。

Those who came before us made certain that this country rode the first waves of the industrial revolutions, the first waves of modern invention, and the first wave of nuclear power, and this generation does not intend to founder in the backwash of the coming age of space. We mean to be a part of it–we mean to lead it. For the eyes of the world now look into space, to the moon and to the planets beyond, and we have vowed that we shall not see it governed by a hostile flag of conquest, but by a banner of freedom and peace. We have vowed that we shall not see space filled with weapons of mass destruction, but with instruments of knowledge and understanding.

我们的前辈,已经使得这个国家引领了这工业革命的现代发明的第一波浪潮,核能的第一浪潮,而我们这一代绝不打算去构建即将到来的空间时代的逆流。 我们指的是它的一部分 -是说我们要领导潮流。 现在全世界的目光都在注视着太空,注视着月球和其他星球,而我们已经承诺,我们不会看到太空是由一种征服者的敌对的旗帜来征服,而是该由一个自由与和平的旗帜来引领。 我们承诺,我们不会看到其中充满大规模的杀伤性武器,而是要装满了知识和理解的科学仪器。

Yet the vows of this Nation can only be fulfilled if we in this Nation are first, and, therefore, we intend to be first. In short, our leadership in science and in industry, our hopes for peace and security, our obligations to ourselves as well as others, all require us to make this effort, to solve these mysteries, to solve them for the good of all men, and to become the world’s leading space-faring nation.

然而,如果要我国的承诺得以履行,只能是我们这个国家必须在太空中获得第一名,也因此,我们要做第一。 简而言之,我们在科学和工业界领导力,我们对于和平与安全的希望,我们对自己和他人的义务,都需要我们作出这种努力,要解决这些谜团—是为所有人类的利益去解决它们,从而让我们成为世界领先的航天国家。

We set sail on this new sea because there is new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. For space science, like nuclear science and all technology, has no conscience of its own. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. I do not say that we should or will go unprotected against the hostile misuse of space any more than we go unprotected against the hostile use of land or sea, but I do say that space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made in extending his writ around this globe of ours.

我们进入了新的海洋,因为在那里,我们要获得新的知识,要赢得新的权利, 我们必须要赢得它们来用于全体人类的进步。 空间科学,如同核科学与所有的技术一样,并没有自己的意识。这科学和技术是否会成为一种正义的或者邪恶的事务完全由人而定,且仅当美国占有这种支配的地位,才能决定是否帮助这个新的海洋成为一个新的和平之海或战争的威胁之海。 我不是说面对敌意,我们对这空间的保护会比保护土地和海洋的做的更多,但是我强调说,空间是可以不被战争之火吞噬下被探索的, 我们不能在太空重复我们人类在全球所犯过的错误。

There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its hazards are hostile to us all. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain. Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas?

到目前为止,在外太空上还没有冲突,没有偏见,没有国家之间的冲突。 而太空的危险是针对我们所有人的。 而其征服会使得全人类受益,而其用于和平合作的机会可能永远不会再来。 但为什么有人说,为什么月球会是我们选择的目标? 有人也许会问,为什么我们要登上这个最高峰。 为什么,35年前,飞越大西洋?(最后句子未译)

We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.

我们选择去月球。 我们选择去月球,并在这十年做其他的事,不是因为它们容易,而是恰恰因为这是很难的,因为这个目标将有助于最好的组织和衡量我们的力量和技能,因为这是一个我们愿意接受的挑战,也是一个我们不愿意推迟的挑战,一个我们想赢而其他人也想赢得的工程。

It is for these reasons that I regard the decision last year to shift our efforts in space from low to high gear as among the most important decisions that will be made during my incumbency in the Office of the Presidency.

正是由于这些原因,去年,我认可了这决定,即,在空间探索上,我们将从低作为的研究(型工作)转向高尖端(实践)工程上,这也是我在总统任期作出的最重要决定。

In the last 24 hours we have seen facilities now being created for the greatest and most complex exploration in man’s history. We have felt the ground shake and the air shattered by the testing of a Saturn C-1 booster rocket, many times as powerful as the Atlas which launched John Glenn, generating power equivalent to 10,000 automobiles with their accelerators on the floor. We have seen the site where five F-1 rocket engines, each one as powerful as all eight engines of the Saturn combined, will be clustered together to make the advanced Saturn missile, assembled in a new building to be built at Cape Canaveral as tall as a 48-story structure, as wide as a city block, and as long as two lengths of this field.

在过去24小时里,我们已经看到了目前正在为人类的历史上最伟大,最复杂的探索所发明建立的设施。 我们感受到地面的的震动,和由一个土星C – 1火箭助推器试验的空中震动,阿特拉斯推出约翰格伦产生的加速器功率强大程度相当于10万辆汽车的许多倍。 我们已经看到了5个F – 1火箭发动机,每个作为土星所有八个相结合的强大引擎之一,将被聚集在一起,使用先进的土星导弹发射场,形成一个新的建筑组合,这个建筑会是在卡纳维拉尔角兴建的一个48层结构,宽达一个城市街区,长达两倍的街区。(部分未翻译)

Within these last 19 months at least 45 satellites have circled the earth. Some 40 of them were “made in the United States of America” and they were far more sophisticated and supplied far more knowledge to the people of the world than those of the Soviet Union.

在过去的19个月中至少有45颗卫星环绕地球。 其中大约40个是“美利坚合众国”制造,他们比苏维埃共和国的卫星向世界人民提供更多的知识。

The Mariner spacecraft now on its way to Venus is the most intricate instrument in the history of space science. The accuracy of that shot is comparable to firing a missile from Cape Canaveral and dropping it in this stadium between the 40-yard lines.
水手号飞船正飞向金星,这是现在空间科学史上最复杂的装置。 该镜头的精度相当于从卡纳维拉尔角发射了导弹,落在这个体育馆的40码范围内的精度。

Transit satellites are helping our ships at sea to steer a safer course. Tiros satellites have given us unprecedented warnings of hurricanes and storms, and will do the same for forest fires and icebergs.

传输卫星让海上的船只航行更安全。 气象卫星给了我们提供了前所未有的关于飓风、风暴以及森林火灾和冰山的预报。

We have had our failures, but so have others, even if they do not admit them. And they may be less public.

我们经历过失败,但是其他国家也一样有这样的失败,即使他们不想承认。 他们只是缺乏信息的公开和透明度。

To be sure, we are behind, and will be behind for some time in manned flight. But we do not intend to stay behind, and in this decade we shall make up and move ahead.

可以肯定的是,我们落后了,并且在载人飞行我么还会持续落后一段时间 。 但我们不打算停在落后之态,在这十年中我们应当弥补不足,努力向前。

The growth of our science and education will be enriched by new knowledge of our universe and environment, by new techniques of learning and mapping and observation, by new tools and computers for industry, medicine, the home as well as the school. Technical institutions, such as Rice, will reap the harvest of these gains.

通过学习,绘图和观察,通过用于工业、医药、家庭以及学校的新工具和计算机,,通过我们宇宙和环境的新知识,我们将会丰富我们科学和教育的新知识。技术机构,例如赖斯大学,将会综合这些获得的知识的成果。

And finally, the space effort itself, while still in its infancy, has already created a great number of new companies, and tens of thousands of new jobs. Space and related industries are generating new demands in investment and skilled personnel, and this city and this State, and this region, will share greatly in this growth. What was once the furthest outpost on the old frontier of the West will be the furthest outpost on the new frontier of science and space. Houston, your City of Houston, with its Manned Spacecraft Center, will become the heart of a large scientific and engineering community. During the next 5 years the National Aeronautics and Space Administration expects to double the number of scientists and engineers in this area, to increase its outlays for salaries and expenses to $60 million a year; to invest some $200 million in plant and laboratory facilities; and to direct or contract for new space efforts over $1 billion from this Center in this City.

最后,航天事业本身,而仍处于类似人类的孩童阶段。这行业已经创造了大量的新公司,和数万个新的就业机会,以及对空间及相关产业创造投资和技术人员的新要求,这个城市,这个州,这个区域,将很大的分享这一增长。 曾经一度西部的旧疆域将成为对科学和空间的新前沿研究的最远的前站。 休斯敦,你们的休斯敦市,它的载人航天器中心,将成为一个大的科学和工程领域的中心。 在未来5年的美国国家航空和航天局预计将使得这一领域的科学家和工程师的数量翻一番,增加工资和费用的支出到一年6000万美元;将在工厂和实验室设施上投资约2个亿;从这个城市的这个研究中心,直接用于或者和空间研发有关的合同将超过10亿美元。

To be sure, all this costs us all a good deal of money. This year’s space budget is three times what it was in January 1961, and it is greater than the space budget of the previous 8 years combined. That budget now stands at $5,400 million a year–a staggering sum, though somewhat less than we pay for cigarettes and cigars every year. Space expenditures will soon rise some more, from 40 cents per person per week to more than 50 cents a week for every man, woman, and child in the United States, for we have given this program a high national priority-even though I realize that this is in some measure an act of faith and vision, for we do not now know what benefits await us. But if I were to say, my fellow citizens, that we shall send to the moon, 240,000 miles away from the control station in Houston, a giant rocket more than 300 feet tall, the length of this football field, made of new metal alloys, some of which have not yet been invented, capable of standing heat and stresses several times more than have ever been experienced, fitted together with a precision better than the finest watch, carrying all the equipment needed for propulsion, guidance, control, communications, food and survival, on an untried mission, to an unknown celestial body, and then return it safely to earth, reentering the atmosphere at speeds of over 25,000 miles per hour, causing heat about half that of the temperature of the sun-almost as hot as it is here today–and do all this, and do it right, and do it first before this decade is out, then we must be bold.

可以肯定的是,所有这些将花费我们一大笔钱。 今年的空间预算的三倍于1961年1月,是前8年的总和预算。 该预算现已达到每年54亿美元 – 这是一个令人吃惊的数目,尽管还稍微小于我们在香烟和雪茄的消费额。 开支比将很快上升一些,从每周平均全美国每个男人,女人和孩子支出40美分,到平均每星期支出超过50美分,因为我们对这个计划给予了很高的国家优先事项,尽管我知道这在一定程度上,这是个有信心和富有远见的行为,但是我们现在不知道有什么回报和收益等待着我们。 (部分未译)

I’m the one who is doing all the work, so we just want you to stay cool for a minute.

我成了这个做完所有这些工作的人,所以我们只希望你们能停一分钟冷却下来。(幽默)

However, I think we’re going to do it, and I think that we must pay what needs to be paid. I don’t think we ought to waste any money, but I think we ought to do the job. And this will be done in the decade of the sixties. It may be done while some of you are still here at school at this college and university. It will be done during the terms of office of some of the people who sit here on this platform. But it will be done. And it will be done before the end of this decade.

不过,我认为我们要做到这一点,我认为我们必须付出所需要的支付。 我不认为我们应该浪费任何钱,但是我认为我们应该做这项工作。 而这项工作将在六十年代的十年内完成。 这是可能被完成的,尽管你们有些人依然在这个学院和大学里学习。 这任务要在一些人的全任期于这个平台内的时间段内才可能完成。 但这一定会完成。 这将是在本十年的结束时完成。

I am delighted that this university is playing a part in putting a man on the moon as part of a great national effort of the United States of America.
我很高兴这所大学扮演这样一个角色,即把人类送上月球的工程的而努力的角色,这也是这个伟大的美利坚合众国努力(进取)的一部分。

Many years ago the great British explorer George Mallory, who was to die on Mount Everest, was asked why did he want to climb it. He said, “Because it is there.”

很多年前,伟大的英国探险家乔治.马洛里,他是死在珠穆朗玛峰,之前,有人曾问他为什么想攀登它。 他说,“因为它在那里。”

Well, space is there, and we’re going to climb it, and the moon and the planets are there, and new hopes for knowledge and peace are there. And, therefore, as we set sail we ask God’s blessing on the most hazardous and dangerous and greatest adventure on which man has ever embarked.

那么,空间在那里,我们要攀爬它,月球和行星在那里,知识与和平的新希望在那里。 因此,当我们起航时,让我们请求神的祝福,在这最惊险,最危险和最冒险的探险家从事的航程上。

Thank you.

谢谢。